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Thammasat University Massacre, 6th October 1976. Bangkok.

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  • #16

    Students of Chiang Rai Rajabhat University commemorating the 1976 student massacre at their campus on 6 October 2015

    Lest We Forget .


    • #17
      Silenced I Memories


      • #18
        in his Sathapana (The Establishment) series and
        Facebook page
        Facebook page.

        Facebook page


        • #19
          Soldiers to Monitor Abstract Play Recognizing 1976 Massacre
          Chayanit Itthipongmaetee
          September 20, 2016

          Photo: Wipat Lertpureewong / Courtesy

          BANGKOKwrote Sunday about B-Floor and the


          • #20
            6 October to mark new generation of student activistsNetiwit Choltiphatphaisal
            (Photo from Netiwit's Facebook account)

            A painting by Thanit Phonglang called 'the chair for you' inspired by Neal Ulevich's photo of the 6 October 1976 massacre
            (Photo from Artistdaily)



            • #22
              6 October 1976
              (Photo courtesy of Neal Ulevich)

              Thammasat University: arts, films and academic talks40 Years after the 6th October MassacreChulalongkorn University: Young gen, TED Talk and Joshua Wong6 Oct CU.

              Kasetsart University: photo exhibition and student activists.



              • #23
                AP WAS THERE: 40 years ago, young Thai protesters massacred
                NEAL ULEVICH
                Oct 4

                AP Photo/Neal Ulevich

                BANGKOK (AP) -- EDITOR'S NOTE: Associated Press Photographer Neal Ulevich won the Pulitzer Prize for his photos of the suppression of a left-wing student protest at Bangkok's Thammasat University on Oct. 6, 1976, and the brutal lynchings in its wake. Ulevich, then 30, arrived as a night of tension at the campus broke into a full-scale assault by paramilitary police on thousands of trapped and defenseless students.

                Even with experience covering the Vietnam War- he was on one of the last helicopters out when the American presence ended with the communist takeover in April 1975 - Ulevich was stunned by the scale of the violence.

                After winning the Pulitzer, he said his happiness "must be tempered with grim memories of the day. If there is any value in the pictures it is that they may have made some people pause and think about the wider issues such as hatred and violence."

                Ulevich wrote this first-person account, which the AP published soon after the massacre.
                In a real riot no one knows you're there. So as gunfire crackled over the campus of Bangkok's Thammasat University Wednesday morning, I pushed my way through an angry sea of rightists and found a hole in the high metal fence surrounding the campus.

                I paused momentarily while Boy Scouts pushed through the fence the body of a soldier with a chest wound. I jumped through.

                The police were on the attack and the rightists were cheering their support. Troops armed with M-16 rifles were spraying wild fire across a quadrangle, shattering classroom windows and nicking holes in the walls.

                With some Indochina combat coverage behind me, I could hear that more than 90 percent of the fire was going in one direction - toward the students. Occasionally it seemed a round came back.

                On the quadrangle, troopers worked their way toward classrooms.

                Some of the troopers tossed hand grenades through the windows. The "garrumph" of a grenade going off was followed by a puff of smoke and the tinkle of showering glass. Then the recoilless rifle crew moved up.

                It wasn't immediately clear why the border patrol police were there, or why they thought they needed an armor-piercing antitank weapon to conquer students. The two-man crew moved forward, followed by a shaggy right-winger carrying a box of ammunition. They blasted more classrooms.

                A few minutes later, about 9:30 a.m., the battle seemed over.

                Students began to pour out of campus buildings, some wounded. I began to move forward, 50 yards behind the soldiers. I began to feel apprehensive, just as I did in Vietnam when crossing open ground. And with good reason. The shooting began again.

                The students threw themselves to the ground - I did, too - as the Thai police emptied more thousands of rounds into the classrooms.

                The fire slackened and the students got up.

                I reached the nearest classroom building.

                At the door, students were running out, diving to their hands and knees and crawling past soldiers who told them to take off their shirts, and coeds their blouses. Slow performance earned a kick.

                A grenade went off in a classroom above us, showering troops and their captives with glass and plaster. The students crawled toward the center of the quadrangle to lie in the hot sun.

                I was joined by a German reporter who speaks Thai, and we walked out through the gate.

                Then we were out on the street - close by the pleasant green trees that surround the Pramaine Ground site of Bangkok's colorful weekend fair. But then we saw the angry swarm of Thais around two of those trees and their anger was white hot. I saw the body of a dead student hanging from one tree. The scene was being repeated just a few feet away.

                I don't know how much earlier the students had been lynched - probably just a few minutes - but enraged rightists felt robbed by death and continued to batter the bodies.

                Other Thais who witnessed the 1973 student riots here said the earlier uprising, which left 70 dead, never evoked the brutality or hatred of Wednesday's attack on the students.

                No one had seen me. I had wandered throughout and taken pictures unmolested. But I had seen enough, and left.



                • #24
                  1976 lynching photo both dark mark and blind spot for Thais
                  GRANT PECK
                  AP video journalists Jerry Harmer and Tassanee Vejpongsa in Bangkok contributed to this report.
                  Oct 4

                  AP Photo/Neal Ulevich

                  BANGKOK (AP) -- A battered body hangs from a tree as a man swings a folding chair over his head, preparing to smash it into the corpse. Spectators watch intently at a slight distance, some smiling, as if watching a Punch and Judy show.

                  A photo of that moment immortalizes the bloody events of Oct. 6, 1976, when heavily armed security forces shot up Bangkok's Thammasat University campus and killed scores of students, while right-wing vigilantes captured and lynched would-be escapees. Even so, what happened there, and why, is to some degree forgotten in Thailand.

                  "Younger Thai people look at the photo and ask where it is from," said Australian filmmaker David Tucker, who is making a documentary about the killings. "They have no idea about the sixth of October. Some say, 'It must have come from another country. It couldn't have happened in Thailand.' People old enough to remember October 6 can guess where it is from and some have seen the picture before, but generally speaking, people are reluctant to talk."

                  How reluctant? No one in that Pulitzer Prize-winning photo - the victim, the attacker or any of the dozens of spectators - has been identified in the 40 years since Associated Press photographer Neal Ulevich shot it.

                  That fact intrigued Tucker, who has teamed up with Thai researchers who are attempting to put names to the long-ago faces. They hope to harness the power of social media to elicit more information, and this week their website, , went live.

                  "It's something the government doesn't want them to talk about," Tucker said, "but I think also a reluctance because the event is hard to reconcile with how Thais see themselves. They are famous for being a gentle and harmonious society and yet right here in the middle of their history is an event that is characterized by savagery and violence, right in the middle of downtown Bangkok."

                  Anocha Suwichakornpong, a Thai director who has made a film inspired by the events of Oct. 6, sees parallels with modern-day Thailand. The military seized control from an elected government in May 2014, following months of sometimes violent protests, and appears assured of maintaining control for the next several years.

                  "I feel the political climate of the recent years has been quite similar to that of 1970s Thailand, especially in the days leading up to the last coup (in 2014), whereby right-wingers and ultra-royalists were becoming more extreme and at the same time the military has been gaining more power. It's almost like we are living in a time warp," she said.

                  Three years before the 1976 killings, students spearheaded protests forcing Thailand's unpopular military dictators to flee the country, ushering in real parliamentary democracy. It was a tumultuous time to manage such a transition. In 1975, three neighboring countries - Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia - had been taken over by communists. Thailand had been a staunch ally of the United States in the Vietnam War, but Washington was now turning tail in Southeast Asia, and its protective shield carried no convincing guarantee.
                  To Thailand's establishment, democracy looked messy, divisive, pitting farmers against landowners, workers against employers. The Marxist rhetoric of student activists hinted at an enemy within.

                  In the autumn of 1976, the students overplayed their hand when they protested the return to Thailand of one of the ousted dictators. A skit meant to represent the police killing of two activists was misrepresented by right-wing media as insulting the country's revered royal family. Students kept up their protests even as army-backed right-wing groups began to howl for blood.

                  By midnight Oct. 5, the 3,000 to 4,000 protesting students inside Thammasat were under siege. Irate royalists and organized thugs gathered outside gates that the students had locked for their own protection. Police, many from heavily armed special units trained for combat, fired revolvers, assault rifles, grenade launchers and even anti-tank weapons upon the students, a handful of whom are believed to have returned fire with small arms.

                  By midmorning, the police were sweeping the university grounds and buildings, making their student prisoners strip off shirts and lie face down on the central athletic field. Thugs rushed in unimpeded, trying to snatch vulnerable students on the fringes, even seeking to take the wounded from ambulances.

                  Hanged bodies were battered until unrecognizable. Corpses had stakes driven into them. A pyre was made of four casually stacked victims. All of it was in plain view on a public field outside the university.

                  Ulevich took the photo of the hanging, one of 12 photos of the scene that earned him a Pulitzer, just after leaving the university grounds. He had been anxious that if he stayed too long, his film might be seized.

                  "When I got to the campus gate," he said in an interview at his Colorado home last week, "I saw a commotion under two trees in the large common field that is in the center of Bangkok.

                  "I walked over to one and saw the man with the chair beating one of the hanged bodies over the head. Two trees away there was another hanged body. They were both quite dead by that time."

                  The official death toll was 46; more reliable estimates from scholars put it upwards of 100.

                  When the army seized power later that day, it imposed a news blackout. Newspapers were temporarily shut down, film and notes seized from reporters. A TV announcer who put footage of the carnage on air was immediately fired.

                  But pictures from international news and broadcast agencies beat the blackout. Newspapers around the world published the shocking images.

                  It was 20 years before Thais even began commemorating the massacre, with a mass gathering at Thammasat and the organized publication of many books. Smaller commemorations then became a tradition, but in 2014, the military government ordered politics to be kept out of the proceedings.

                  The junta has shown no signs of interfering with this year's commemorations, though its critics are among the organizers and events have been expanded for the first time to two other Bangkok universities.

                  Ulevich's photo is the main design element for many of the posters marking the 40th anniversary. It also has been an inspiration to Thai artists, including Anocha, whose independent feature "By the Time It Gets Dark" is making the festival rounds. The movie is about a filmmaker working on a movie based on a writer who had been a student activist in the 1970s.

                  Ulevich's photo, she said in an email, "has served as a reminder (to those who have forgotten) to which depth Thai society can sink into in the grip of hysteria and madness. And to those who had not lived through the experience, to ignite something in them that hopefully can help prevent such barbarity from happening again."



                  • #25
                    6 October Photo



                    Can you help us contact anyone in this photograph? Any information you share will be treated as strictly confidential.



                    • #26
                      "Can you help us contact anyone in this photograph? Any information you share will be treated as strictly confidential."

                      Well, if anyone knows some one in the former Village Scouts, they might be of help?
                      God, the panic within the Dems, MSM, and left must be horrifying...realizing that Joe is really the best they've got.


                      • #27
                        1976: A Nightmare of Lynching and Burning

                        1976: A Nightmare of Lynching and Burning
                        1976 ฝันร้ายของการลงประชาทัณฑ์ และ เผาทั้งเป็น

                        October 6, 2016


                        THAILAND: A Nightmare of Lynching and Burning
                        Violence and the Military Coup in ThailandOctober 6 banners at Thammasat University

                        1976: A sea of blood

                        YouTube: 6 Oct 1976

                        2003: New website gives gruesome details of October 6 bloodbath

                        Memories of a massacre, cautionary tale for today

                        From Phujatkhan, September 4, 2008

                        The October 6, 1976 events are often thought of as the forgotten Thai political upheaval. Officials are more happy to memorialize the 1973 revolution rather than the 1976 right-wing revenge on students that so implicitly cited the monarchy as part of its rationale.
                        However, the rise of the People Power Party in 2008 finally brought right-wing villain Samak Sundaravej to the premiership as a Thaksin proxy PM (Clowns, cronies, dimwits crowd centre stageSamak Denies the 1976 Massacre

                        Samak becomes pale when shown his picture taken with Prapass

                        Will Sutham call Samak over Oct 6 truth?

                        Samak blows his top after questioned about press censorship following Oct 6 1976 event

                        Editorial cartoon: Samak in hell

                        All about Samak Sundaravej



                        • #28
                          The brutal Bangkok crackdown that was hushed up for years
                          5 October 2016

                          When Thai soldiers opened fire on students demonstrating at Thammasat University in Bangkok they killed at least 46 people, effectively ending a brief period of democracy in Thailand.

                          The brutal killings that took place on 6 October 1976 were quickly swept under the carpet and not investigated by the new military authorities or discussed for many years.

                          Thongchai Winichakul was one of the student leaders on the campus. He spoke to Witness about the attack that haunts him to this day.

                          Witness: The stories of our times told by the people who were there.



                          • #29
                            "Thais dare not ask this question to me. . ."
                            Thursday, February 14, 2008



                            This jotman page is well worth a look .


                            • #30
                              Little change since 1976, say Thai massacre survivors
                              Max Constant

                              Survivors of massacre at Bangkok university claim authorities still inciting hatred among various groups for own benefit

                              Vipar Daomanee, who lost many friends on Oct. 6, 1976 when around 100 students at a Thai university were lynched, burnt alive and shot by right wing militias in what became known as the most traumatic event in Thai contemporary history
                              (Photo:Max Constant)

                              On Oct. 6, 1976, around 100 students at a Thai university were lynched, burnt alive and shot by right-wing militias, spurred on by their chanting and smiling countrymen.

                              Many of those who stood by and cheered had been wrongly convinced that their army was purging the country of communist anti-monarchy forces.

                              Forty years on, some of the students who stood by helplessly as barricades were broken down and their colleagues dragged to their deaths claim authorities are still unable to admit their role in the event, and that little has changed in how Thailand is run.

                              The government was run at that time by Seni Pramoj, a conservative politician from an aristocratic background, who, according to then-Thammasat University rector Puey Ungphakorn, ordered the assault.

                              Notcharit, who was a 19-year-old student at Thammasat at the time, said he only managed to escape the massacre by fleeing to the back of the university in the historic area of Bangkok and diving into the Chao Phraya river, from where he was able to hide in a nearby house with the help of sympathetic residents.

                              On Thursday morning, tributes took take place across universities in the Thai capital to those who died and suffered at the hands of the police and right-wing groups -- many of which carried names akin to boy scout movements: the Red Gaurs, Nawaphon and Village Scout.

                              The groups accused the students of having communist sympathies, of trying to destroy the Thai monarchy, and of fueling the revolutions that had overthrown corrupt feudal systems in neighboring Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos.

                              Much of the anger was nourished by members of extreme right-wing, patriotic Buddhist organizations active during the country's short democratic period in the mid-1970s.

                              One -- Nawaphon (new or ninth force) -- was influenced by then popular monk Kittiwuttho Bhikkhu, who was opposed to parliamentary democracy, campaigned for the three principles of nation, religion, and monarchy and infamously claimed in 1976 that the killing of communists was not a sin -- effectively encouraging the act in Buddhist majority Thailand.

                              Scores of students were killed during the assault in what became known as the most traumatic event in Thai contemporary history.

                              Images taken on the day and quickly smuggled out of the country for fear of them being destroyed show students being beaten and lynched on tamarind trees in front of laughing crowds.

                              Others were dragged along the lawn of the nearby Royal Plaza by nooses strung around their necks, while hundreds were stripped, beaten and forced by armed police to lie on the university football pitch.

                              Today -- Oct. 6, 2016 -- most of the dead have still not been named.

                              Notcharit told Anadolu Agency this week that when he returned to the site of the beatings to study "two or three years after", he was fraught with anger.

                              Vipar Daomanee participated in the student movements of 1976, but she says she was not in Thammasat on that fateful day.

                              Talking to Anadolu Agency, Daomanee -- now 60 years old -- says after losing many friends on the day, she has since campaigned to keep their memory alive.

                              She says that 15 years ago she and fellow campaigners managed to convince the government of the time to allow the construction of a small memorial to the dead in a corner of quiet Thammasat.

                              But getting authorities to recognize the injustice of the day has been a completely different matter.

                              On October 14, a mass pro-democracy uprising across the country was brutally repressed by then dictator Field Marshall Thanom Kittikachorn.

                              Dozens of people were killed in Bangkok in street battles when Kittikachorn's troops opened fire on demonstrators.

                              Soon after, Kittikachorn was forced to cede power and went into exile after he lost the support of the military and King Bhumibol Adulyadej.

                              In today's Thailand, a new generation of student activists opposed to the country's latest junta see parallels between their struggle against authoritarianism and that initiated by their elders 40 years ago.

                              Thammasat survivor Notcharit says his biggest regret is that little has changed in the way the country is run in the last 40 years.

                              Ex-PM Shinawatra -- deposed by the junta in 2006 -- is the elder brother of Yingluck Shinawatra, whose government was overthrown in 2014 by the present military junta.