Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

How Covid-19 Might Spread to You

Collapse
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

    • New Study Shows Measurable Organ Impairment in Long COVID Patients

    Long COVID, also referred to as post-COVID-19 syndrome, is yet to be fully understood, but has wide-ranging and fluctuating symptoms, which can include breathlessness, chronic fatigue, “brain fog”, anxiety and stress. The research examined associations between hospitalization, severity of COVID-19 symptoms and multiorgan impairment (in heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, pancreas, spleen), and demonstrated a physiological basis for long COVID. Although the study population were considered to be at low risk of COVID-19 mortality but with ongoing symptoms, seventy percent showed impairment in one or more organs up to four months after initial COVID-19 symptoms.

    “Early in the pandemic, research and clinical practice focused on pulmonary effects of COVID-19, but as we scanned patients using Perspectum’s quantitative MRI, we found evidence of multiorgan impairment,” says Dr Amitava Banerjee, Associate Professor in Clinical Data Science and Honorary Consultant Cardiologist, University College London. “Because our research demonstrated physiological effects in a majority of patients, we believe major organ systems must be assessed in all patients recovering from COVID-19 — to help define long COVID, determine its aftereffects and develop multidisciplinary care pathways.”

    “There are tremendous implications for healthcare and public health, which have assumed low risk in young people with no comorbidities,” adds Dr Banerjee. “While our research examined patients hospitalized with COVID-19, future research should address longer-term follow-up of organ function beyond symptoms and blood investigations, even in lower risk individuals who were not hospitalized with the disease; and prioritization for imaging, investigation and referral.”

    About Long COVID

    Long COVID affects 10-30% of people who have symptomatic infection with Sars-CoV-2 and is defined as symptomatic disease lasting longer than 12 weeks. Patients typically have extreme fatigue, chest pain, breathlessness, muscle aches and brain fog, but there are many reported symptoms. Many of these patients have organ damage or impairment, and ways of managing this are currently being researched. Patients with Long Covid are often unable to work for long periods of time, posing a significant burden to the economy and public services.: https://www.businesswire.com/news/ho...0426005122/en/
    • Coronavirus Cases: 147,981,364

    Deaths: 3,125,508

    Under reported US death count: 586,177

    American Civil War Casualties (North and South) - 214,938

    Originally posted by Boon Mee View Post
    it's been blown way out of proportion.
    Keep your friends close and your enemies closer

    Comment


    • Thailand - Thai Covid deaths hit new record Tuesday

      Originally posted by Somchai Boonporn View Post
      Perhaps a blessing in disguise for the Golden Land.


      Thailand on Tuesday reported 15 new coronavirus deaths, setting a new daily record for the third time in four days during a growing third wave of infections that has prompted new shutdowns in Bangkok and other areas.

      The government also reported 2,179 new coronavirus cases, bringing total confirmed infections to 59,687 with the accumulated death toll now 163.

      Taweesilp Visanuyothin, spokesman for the Centre for Covid-19 Situation Administration, said the 15 new fatalities were all Thai nationals – nine men and six women, aged 24-88.

      Nine of them died in Bangkok, two in Nakhon Sawan and one each in Chaiyaphum, Phetchaburi, Samut Prakan and Saraburi provinces.

      Most of them had chronic diseases including diabetes, renal disease, obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, heart disease and cancer, Dr Taweesilp said.

      Most death cases had come into contact with previously confirmed cases in their families or at their workplaces, or visited high-risk areas such as entertainment venues and markets.

      “The times between infection confirmation and death ranged mainly from 1-6 days. One of the deaths came after 16 days,” Dr Taweesilp said.

      Of the 2,179 new cases over the past 24 hours, 2,174 were local infections and five were imported.

      Bangkok logged 993 new cases, Nonthaburi 149, Pathum Thani and Samut Prakan 93 each, Chon Buri 80, Surat Thani 62, Samut Sakhon 61 (some of them contracted in Bangkok), Chiang Mai 60, Nakhon Ratchasima 33 and Ayutthaya 30.

      Out of Thailand’s 77 provinces, seven had at least 50 cases, 25 had at least ten and 52 fewer than ten, Dr Taweesilp said.

      The five imported cases were quarantined arrivals from Indonesia (2), Switzerland, India and the United Arab Emirates.

      Of the 59,587 total cases, 33,551 (56.21%) recovered including 1,958 discharged over the past 24 hours and 25,973 were at hospitals, including 628 in critical condition and 169 on ventilators.

      The third wave of Covid-19 this month has now produced 30,824 cases, including 10,069 in Bangkok, 3,292 in Chiang Mai and 2,043 in Nonthaburi. The death toll this month is now 69.: https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand...deaths-tuesday

      Originally posted by Somchai Boonporn View Post
      Perhaps a blessing in disguise for the Golden Land.

      Keep your friends close and your enemies closer

      Comment


      • Famed Phitsanulok temple hall closed for 20 days

        The majestic vihara, or assembly hall, where the revered Buddha image Phra Phuttha Chinnarat is enshrined at Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat in Muang district has been closed for 20 days because of Covid-19 concerns.

        The area inside the temple grounds where shops sell souvenirs, lottery tickets and other goods remains open to the public.

        The closure of the hall, until May 15, is intended to help stop the third wave of the Covid-19 pandemic, and is on the advice of the provincial public health office.

        The assembly hall with the golden image of Phra Phuttha Chinnarat was closed for the first time in April last year, during the first round of the pandemic. It is usually packed with visitors paying respect to the Buddha image.

        The public health office announced on Sunday that 12 more Covid-19 infections were found in the province, increasing the tally to 233. Of the total, seven have recovered and 226 are still being treated in hospital.

        Like most other provinces, governor Ronnachai Jitwiset has made it compulsory for people in Phitsanulok to wear face masks while outdoors, under threat of a fine of up to 20,000 baht under Section 51 of the Communicable Disease Act for failing to do so.: https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand...ed-for-20-days

        Originally posted by Somchai Boonporn View Post
        Perhaps a blessing in disguise for the Golden Land.

        Keep your friends close and your enemies closer

        Comment


        • CCSA takes reins of virus crisis

          The government will adopt a single command system to improve the efficiency of the national Covid-19 vaccination drive, with the aim of inoculating about 30 million people over the next three months and 50 million by the end of the year.

          According to a post on Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha's official Facebook page, the PM met with his advisers at Government House to discuss ways to ramp up the distribution of Covid-19 vaccines, which is a top national priority.

          The government will do everything in its power to procure more doses to support the national vaccination drive, with a target to buy 10-15 million doses a month from several manufacturers, according to the post.

          The government will also improve cooperation between state and private agencies to ensure broad distribution of the doses. A proactive vaccination plan will also be put in place to ease the burden on the public health system, it said.

          Alternative vaccination centres will also be set up at appropriate locations, such as meeting halls, sport centres and hotels to prevent crowding at hospitals, whose main task is to look after infected patients, the post said.

          At least 300,000 doses will be administered a day, with the goal of vaccinating 50 million people by the end of this year or sooner, Gen Prayut wrote in the post.

          Speaking after the meeting, Danucha Pichayanan, secretary-general of the National Economic and Social Development Council (NESDC) said that the government plans to inoculate 30 million people over the next three months, or about 300,000 people a day.

          At least 50 million people are expected to be vaccinated by year-end, he said.

          Traisuree Taisaranakul, deputy spokesman for the government, previously said Thailand has received 2.5 million doses from Sinovac, including the recent batch of 500,000 doses which arrived on Saturday.

          She said Sinovac Biotech will send one million doses to Thailand next month, which will bring the total to 3.5 million doses, Ms Traisuree said.

          So far, Thailand has approved the use of Covid-19 vaccines from Sinovac, AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson, Mr Danucha said on Monday.

          He said the government is also seeking to import the Pfizer and Sputnik V vaccines.

          "The prime minister instructed all agencies involved to step up their efforts to procure more than 100 million vaccine doses by the end of this year. The vaccination drive will operate under a single command to ensure effective distribution," Mr Danucha said.

          Mr Danucha said the prime minister will meet the private sector tomorrow to find ways for businesses and whole industries to procure Covid-19 vaccine doses for employees.

          Tomorrow's meeting will also discuss venues which can be used to support the government's plan to inoculate 300,000 people a day, Mr Danucha said, before adding retired doctors and nurses will be asked to help with the programme.

          Government spokesman Anucha Burapachaisri said Monday's meeting discussed the severity of the latest wave of infections, which has become a cause of public concern.

          It was agreed at the meeting that the Centre for Covid-19 Situation Administration (CCSA) will resume its central role in the government's handling of the pandemic to ensure efficiency, as the centre had delegated some of its authority to other ministries before the latest wave, Mr Anucha said.

          The CCSA has also been instructed to set up health screening centres in all 77 provinces. Major provinces, particularly Bangkok, must have several such hubs, he said.

          On vaccine procurement, Mr Anucha said 28 million doses are due for delivery between May and August, and talks are underway to purchase 40 million more doses from various manufacturers.: https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand...f-virus-crisis

          Originally posted by Somchai Boonporn View Post
          Perhaps a blessing in disguise for the Golden Land.

          Keep your friends close and your enemies closer

          Comment


          • Stadiums primed to take in Covid-19 cases

            Bangkok's main sports stadiums and training facilities have been selected to be transformed into new Covid-19 field hospitals, as the number of new infections continues to rise, Deputy Prime Minister and Public Health Minister Anutin Charnvirakul said on Monday.

            Among them are Nimibutr sports building of the Physical Education Department in Pathumwan district, the Sports Authority of Thailand's indoor sports training centre in Bang Kapi district, Rajamangala National Stadium in Bang Kapi district, and the Huamark Indoor Stadium also in Bang Kapi, he said.

            He was speaking during a trip to inspect the Nimibutr building in the National Stadium of Thailand. He was accompanied by Tourism and Sports Minister Phiphat Ratchakitprakarn.

            The facilities for initially be repurposed to accommodate those who have caught the virus but are only suffering from mild symptoms, he said.

            The army, meanwhile, revealed it already has opened three Covid-19 field hospitals in Bangkok, Prachuap Khiri Khan and Songkhla and is preparing to dispatch more medical units to work in rotation at City Hall's field hospitals.

            These three first field hospitals are now being operated by the Public Health Ministry while at least four more will later be placed in the ministry's hands to run, said Col Sirichan Ngathong, deputy spokeswoman for the army.

            As of Sunday, 246 out of 300 beds offered at the First Air Defence Regiment in Laksi district of Bangkok were occupied, she said.

            The second field hospital, at the army's Infantry Centre in Prachuap Khiri Khan, has 100 spaces, 31 of which were already occupied, she added.

            And at the 5th Infantry Regiment in Songkhla, 36 out of its 100 beds were occupied as of Monday, she said.

            The four other field hospitals the army plans to open next are in Krabi, Songkhla, Lop Buri and Nonthaburi.

            In addition to these field hospitals for civilians, the army has set up a separate unit in the Kiakkai area of Bangkok specifically for military personnel and their families.

            This unit was currently looking after 101 patients who had been discharged from Phramongkutklao Hospital after Covid-19 treatment but still needed supervision in their recovery, she said.

            The army has also assigned two teams of 19 doctors work in rotation at Covid-19 field hospitals in Bangkok along with 10 vehicles to help transport patients from their homes.: https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand...covid-19-cases

            Originally posted by Somchai Boonporn View Post
            Perhaps a blessing in disguise for the Golden Land.


            Keep your friends close and your enemies closer

            Comment


            • Infected trio arrested after fleeing field hospital

              NAKHON NAYOK: Two women and a man infected with Covid-19 were arrested by police after fleeing a hospital in Sa Kaeo where they were being treated.

              Commander of Sa Kaeo police, Pol Maj Gen Natthapong Sattayanurak, said Kamonwan Lummanee, 46, Kamonchanok Wichachim, 26, and Pannuwat Khantakhot, 23, were arrested in Muang district yesterday.

              The trio came in for Covid-19 testing in Sa Kaeo on April 16, Sa Kaeo governor Somkiat Chantra, said on Monday.

              A day later, their infections were confirmed and they were summoned by the public health office to report to the field hospital at the Sa Kaeo provincial administrative organisation.

              However, they managed to escape after telling officials they were going out to pick up their belongings outside the facility.

              Police launched a manhunt after learning they had fled to Muang district in Samut Prakan, before travelling to Suphan Buri and Nakhon Nayok, where they were ultimately arrested.

              After their arrest, they were taken back to the field hospital in Sa Kaeo, where they were met by medical workers wearing full protective equipment.

              The group has yet to be charged as they were immediately brought back to the field hospital to be treated. Once they have recovered, they will be brought in to be questioned and charged for violating disease control regulations.

              Separately in Chon Buri, 25 foreigners and three Thais were arrested when police and local officials raided two homes in a housing estate where a birthday party was being held on Sunday night in violation of coronavirus-prevention restrictions.

              All were charged with violating the Covid-19 emergency decree.: https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand...field-hospital

              Originally posted by Somchai Boonporn View Post
              Perhaps a blessing in disguise for the Golden Land.

              Keep your friends close and your enemies closer

              Comment


              • Covid claims 15 lives for 2nd consecutive day, 2,012 new cases confirmed

                Originally posted by Somchai Boonporn View Post
                Perhaps a blessing in disguise for the Golden Land.


                The Centre for Covid-19 Situation Administration (CCSA) on Tuesday reported 2,012 new cases, and 15 deaths for a second day running. The new fatalities include nine cases in Bangkok, two each in Chiang Mai and Samut Prakan and one each in Chonburi and Ranong.

                The ages of those who succumbed to the virus ranged between 35 and 88, and all of them reportedly suffered from chronic conditions.

                Meanwhile, of the 2,012 new cases, 830 were in Bangkok, followed by 108 in Chonburi and 161 in Samut Prakan.

                The new infections also included 11 arrivals from overseas. Of them, seven were Thais, four of whom flew in from Pakistan, two from Cambodia and one from Qatar.

                The remaining four included two Indians from India and UAE and a Chinese national and a Czech from their own countries.

                Meanwhile, 851 patients have recovered and been discharged in the last 24 hours.

                As of Wednesday, the number of confirmed cases in Thailand had risen to 61,699. Of these, 58,402 had been contracted locally, including 21,840 who were found via proactive testing, while 3,297 were returnees.

                So far, 34,402 have recovered and been discharged, 27,119 patients are still in hospitals, and 178 have died.: https://www.nationthailand.com/in-focus/40000314

                Originally posted by Somchai Boonporn View Post
                Perhaps a blessing in disguise for the Golden Land.


                Keep your friends close and your enemies closer

                Comment


                • Thailand - Troops and army equipment join the fight against 3rd wave of COVID-19

                  The Thai army has mobilized its men and equipment to assist public health officials in providing field hospitals, to accommodate COVID-19 patients, facilitating the transport of patients to hospitals and in vaccinations.

                  The Army Commander-in-Chief General Narongpan Jitkaewtae has instructed all regional commanders to prepare their men and equipment to support the Public Health Ministry.

                  So far, the army has already set up 19 field hospitals, with a combined capacity of 3,050 beds, adding that seven of them, in Bangkok, Songkhla, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Krabi and Lop Buri, are now operational.

                  Ten ambulances have been provided to help in the transport of patients and the army is prepared to convert some of its other vehicles into ambulances in the case that more are needed, while army medics are ready to help in the vaccination program.: https://www.thaipbsworld.com/troops-...e-of-covid-19/

                  Originally posted by Somchai Boonporn View Post
                  Perhaps a blessing in disguise for the Golden Land.

                  Keep your friends close and your enemies closer

                  Comment


                  • Thailand - State preps B300bn for new measures

                    The government looks set to prepare more than 300 billion baht's worth of new measures to help reduce people's expenses and stimulate domestic consumption battered by a fresh wave of Covid-19 infections.

                    Kulaya Tantitemit, the director-general of the Fiscal Policy Office under the Finance Ministry, said the ministry has been keeping a very close eye on the spread of Covid-19 in the country and other related factors that may affect the country's economy overall and is ready to roll out measures to remedy the impact.

                    "For measures in the subsequent steps, the Finance Ministry is considering their propriety and compliance with the economic situation in each period in order to maximise benefits to the people," she said.

                    "At the same time, the government has reserved more than 300 billion baht for spending plans for economic and social rehabilitation."

                    According to a Finance Ministry source who requested anonymity, the government now has about 380 billion baht available to be allocated to remedy the impact of the pandemic, 240 billion baht of which is left over from the 1-trillion-baht loan decree while the remainder will come from the government's fiscal expenditure budget.

                    In the event that the infections are prolonged, the source said additional borrowings in addition to the 1-trillion-baht loan decree are inevitable and the government itself is believed to be considering raising the ceiling of its fiscal sustainability framework, which caps public debt at 60% of GDP.

                    The source estimated at the end of fiscal 2021 or Sept 30 this year, Thailand's public debt-to-GDP ratio would stand at 58.75%.

                    Thailand has managed to keep public debt to GDP below the sustainability framework ceiling for decades by providing fiscal policy space for the government to buffer against economic shocks.

                    The public debt level was around 40% of GDP before the pandemic emerged in early 2020.

                    A review of the government's fiscal sustainability framework is conducted every three years and a review is due to take place this year.

                    The IMF's latest fiscal monitor says global public debt stood at 97.3% of GDP in 2020, a rise of 13% from the period before the pandemic, while the figures are expected to reach 98.9% in 2021 and 99% in 2022.: https://www.bangkokpost.com/business...r-new-measures

                    Originally posted by Somchai Boonporn View Post
                    Perhaps a blessing in disguise for the Golden Land.

                    Keep your friends close and your enemies closer

                    Comment


                    • Higher, faster, deadlier: Third wave of COVID triggers growing fear in Thailand

                      A grim warning has been issued by a leading medical expert as Thailand grapples with its third and worst wave of COVID-19: expect a double-digit death toll to become regular daily occurrence.

                      Prof Dr. Prasit Watanapa, dean of Mahidol University’s Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, spoke up on Tuesday (April 27) as the country recorded its second day of two-figure fatalities – 15 COVID-related deaths. The first came just two days earlier amid a death toll that has been mounting every day since April 17.

                      “At Siriraj Hospital, about one in four COVID-19 patients has developed lung inflammation,” Prasit said, “This rate, which is more than before, will translate into a higher mortality rate – a two-digit figure [perhaps daily]”.

                      COVID-19 turns more lethal

                      COVID-19 emerged in Thailand early last year, but the country managed to control the first wave efficiently. Stringent measures including strict lockdowns resulted in just 4,237 COVID-19 infections and 60 deaths in the 11 months from January to mid-December.

                      The second wave proved more virulent and dangerous. From December 15 to March 31, the virus infected 24,626 people in Thailand, killing 34 of them.

                      The third wave, which began in early April, has already dwarfed its predecessors, totalling 30,824 cases and 69 fatalities as of Tuesday (April 27). Simply put, COVID-19 has killed more people in Thailand this month than in the whole of 2020.

                      Worrying signs from rising death toll

                      Disease Control Department director-general Dr. Opart Karnkawinpong said the high death count in recent weeks has sent Thailand toppling down the international pandemic standings. Thailand was ranked 106th for COVID-19 deaths on April 23. “But if the focus is just on the April 16-23 period, Thailand is in 50th spot,” he said.

                      Records also reveal the period between confirmed infection and death of COVID-19 patients in Thailand this month averaged only six days. Early last year it was 12 days, but the period shortened to seven days in December.

                      Also, COVID-19 is no longer killing only elderly people or those with chronic diseases. A 24-year-old woman succumbed to the disease on April 20, followed by a 24-year-old man on April 26.

                      What’s behind higher fatalities?

                      Early this month, the UK strain of COVID-19 (B117) was found in Thailand for the first time. The discovery triggered alarm since this mutant is thought to be 1.7 times more contagious and deadly than other strains. According to one overseas study, deaths from B117 infections are between 30 and 100 percent higher than deaths from earlier variants.: https://www.thaipbsworld.com/higher-...r-in-thailand/

                      Originally posted by Somchai Boonporn View Post
                      Perhaps a blessing in disguise for the Golden Land.


                      Keep your friends close and your enemies closer

                      Comment


                      • Face mask rules, curfews expanded

                        It is now mandatory to wear a face mask when outside your home in 63 of the 77 provinces in the country, under regulations to contain the spread of Covid-19.

                        The rule has now been extended to include the northeastern provinces of Nakhon Ratchasima, Bung Kan, Nong Bua Lam Phu and Roi Et; the central plains provinces of Sing Buri and Nakhon Sawan; and the southern province of Chumphon, the Interior Ministry announced on Wednesday.

                        This is an increase from 56 provinces where the requirement already applied.

                        In the Central Plans and the East, they are Kanchanaburi (only at markets), Prachin Buri, Phetchaburi, Suphan Buri, Ayutthaya, Samut Sakhon, Lop Buri, Samut Prakan, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Chon Buri, Saraburi, Trat, Nonthaburi, Nakhon Pathom, Chanthaburi, Bangkok, Pathum Thani, Chachoengsao, Ang Thong, Sa Kaeo and Nakhon Nayok.

                        Southern provinces are Surat Thani, Trang, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Narathiwat, Pattani, Phangnga, Phuket, Ranong, Satun, Songkhla, Yala, Krabi and Phatthalung.

                        Northern provinces are Sukhothai, Tak, Phetchabun, Uttaradit, Lamphun, Phitsanulok and Chiang Mai.

                        In the Northeast, they are Yasothon, Nong Khai, Ubon Ratchathani, Chaiyaphum, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Si Sa Ket, Surin, Udon Thani, Loei, Amnat Charoen, Buri Ram, Nakhon Phanom, Khon Kaen and Kalasin.

                        Police said the fine for mask violations was set at up to 20,000 baht, but for first-time offenders it would start at 6,000 baht and gradually increase on subsequent offences.

                        In addition, curfews are now in force in eight provinces, up from six previously. They are: Trang (10pm-3am), Nonthaburi (9pm-4am), Bung Kan (11pm-4am), Pathum Thani (9pm-4am), Songkhla (10pm-4am), Samut Prakan (9pm-4am), Samut Sakhon (11pm-4am) and Surat Thani (10pm-4am).: https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand...rfews-expanded

                        Originally posted by Somchai Boonporn View Post
                        Perhaps a blessing in disguise for the Golden Land.

                        Keep your friends close and your enemies closer

                        Comment


                        • Gentle reminder to the sheep:

                          E0EZsZFUcAIwBmq?format=jpg&name=900x900.jpg

                          God, the panic within the Dems, MSM, and left must be horrifying...realizing that Joe is really the best they've got.

                          Comment


                          • We do not need cert or travel but where can non Thai residency get vaccine, any type?

                            Comment


                            • Those survival rates do not mention the plethora of problems the survivors get with Long COVID. Very serious problems.

                              Comment


                              • Covid closes another Ayutthaya market

                                Authorities have ordered the closure of Wang Noi Muang Mai Market in Wang Noi district of Ayutthaya for three days of cleaning after three vendors tested positive for Covid-19.


                                Ayutthaya governor Phanu Yaemsri said on Wednesday that all zones of the market had been temporarily closed, from April 27 until April 29.

                                Mass testing of people who were at risk was already underway, with 600 tested so far. The results were pending, the governor said.

                                The market was being thoroughly cleaned. All stall owners and workers had been freshly registered and more health screening points were being set up at the market, Mr Phanu said.

                                The provincial disease panel would inspect the market on Thursday and decide whether it should be allowed to reopen, and when.

                                Ayutthaya reported 14 new Covid-19 cases on Thursday, bringing total infections in the latest outbreak to 339. In April alone, there have been 279 confirmed cases to date, of which 229 remained in hospitals, with one Covid-19 death.

                                The new cases were people infected by previously confirmed cases.

                                The provincial Central Shrimp Market remains closed. It was the centre of the latest outbreak. On Tuesday, the communicable disease control committee extended its closure for seven more days until May 4, with 43 people now confirmed to have caught Covid-19 there.: https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand...utthaya-market

                                Originally posted by Somchai Boonporn View Post
                                Perhaps a blessing in disguise for the Golden Land.

                                Keep your friends close and your enemies closer

                                Comment

                                antalya escort
                                istanbul escort maltepe escort
                                hdredtube sxe video rettube video sex abg xxxs
                                antalya escort bayan
                                Working...
                                X