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Thread: Rohingya : rising evidence of genocide

  1. #1

    Rohingya : rising evidence of genocide

    Rohingya: denied the right to be human
    Nancy Hudson-Rodd
    Nancy Hudson-Rodd PhD, a human geographer, has conducted over a decade of research on arbitrary land confiscation and other human rights abuses in Burma. She is an honorary research fellow at Edith Cowan University and a university associate at University of Tasmania.
    15 June 2014

    I struggle to comprehend the lack of international response to the sheer hell for Rohingya people whether in squalid Bangladesh camps or in Burma. President Thein Sein and other Burmese Government members, welcomed around the world, continue a well-orchestrated, well-documented plan to destroy every aspect of Rohingya men, women and children’s lives. Individuals are treated as not entitled to be recognised as fellow human beings. The old Nazi phrase “life unworthy of life” comes to mind.

    On 21 May, 2014 the Burma Border Guard Police threw the bodies of two Rohingya men they had murdered across the border. The Bangladesh Guard promptly threw the bodies back into Burma.

    On the same day, the Burma Border Guard Police entered Bangladesh, fired on four Rohingya refugees working in a makeshift camp, killing 16 year old Mamed Shaffique.

    Mamed’s father has not found his son’s body which was taken by the police.

    Police need not fear reprisals for their actions. Rohingya are seen not as really human, not deserving to live. No police will be charged with the murder of a defenceless young boy. Mamed’s family, denied any human dignity, cannot perform a proper burial of their son.

    Mamed was one of 400,000 Rohingya undocumented refugees living in unofficial camps unsupported by the Bangladesh Government, the UN, or international organisations. Another 30,000 documented Rohingya live in official UNHCR camps. For the past 36 years, Rohingya have fled severe persecution in Burma, the largest mass movements in 1978, 1991-92, and 2012.

    In 2008, the UNHCR (High Commissioner for Refugees) launched a special initiative on ‘protracted refugee situations’ seeking durable solutions and improvements to lives of long-term refugees. Refugee groups identified as needing special attention included: Afghan refugees in Iran and Pakistan; refugees in Croatia and Serbia; Eritrean refugees in eastern Sudan; Burundian refugees in Tanzania; and Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. All these situations were complex, but UNHCR focused on the most challenging to address, the protracted situation of Rohingya refugees.

    The States of Denial: A Review of UNHCR’s Response to the Protracted Situation of Stateless Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh concluded that Rohingya were unwanted in Bangladesh and other countries. They suffer discrimination, exploitation, and severe persecution, including but not limited to, forced labour, extortion, restriction on freedom of movement, absence of residence rights, denial of citizenship, inequitable marriage regulations, land confiscation, limited access to education and other public services in Burma. Rohingya have no place to go. UNHCR lives with the daily paradox of its mandate and earnest desire to help refugees, together with the reality of its inability to alleviate the root causes of their suffering, Burma’s continued pervasive persecution of Rohingya and denial of citizenship.

    The UN Special Rapporteur mandate on the situation of human rights in Myanmar was established in 1992, for three reasons, one of which was the continued human rights abuses and such severe restrictions of Rohingya, that tens of thousands were forced to flee the country. UN bodies since have acknowledged what amounts to a state policy of deportation and forcible transfer of Rohingya and the abuses that contributed to it. The UN Global Centre for Responsibility to Protect (14 February 2014) warned that “stateless Rohingya and other Muslims continue to face a serious risk of mass atrocity crimes”.

    On May 24, 2014 Nurul Amin, an eight year old boy, returned home with firewood he collected in a nearby Maungdaw Township forest. An out-post army officer stopped him, as he passed by and seized the boy’s wood. When Nurul began to cry asking that his firewood be returned, the officer severely tortured him and then sent him to the Village Administration Office. The boy’s relatives collected the injured boy, who being Rohingya, was denied any medical care or treatment. “The police or other government officials do not think the Rohingya as a human being, otherwise they will not do such things against Rohingya people”, said Anis a local businessman.

    The basis of human rights is an existential value, the equal dignity of every person, simply because they exist. Rohingya have been stripped of any fundamental rights, because they are Rohingya. Forced to lose all their uniquely human and personal characteristics, their identity as human beings, as particular individuals, has been taken from them.

    Hannah Arendt argues in The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951) that the discourse on the ‘rights of man’ is relevant only as far as one is included in the category of being ‘human’. To be human, Arendt suggests, it is presumed that one must belong to a recognised nation-state, for only the nation-state is able to protect one as a human in the name of these rights. Arendt makes the distinction between ‘the right to human rights’ and ‘the right to be recognised as having the right to….’. She suggests that the right to be recognised as human be included. She presupposes a distinction between life and existence. The antithesis of existence is an empty void, an indefinable space.

    While Arendt applied this insight to the plight of refugees, it clearly applies to the study of crimes against humanity and genocide. Crimes against humanity according to George Kateb in Human Dignity (2011) are the most serious crimes against individual human dignity and the most serious crimes against the morality embedded in human rights, a total abrogation of human rights. The extreme will to deny humanity of a targeted group, genocide, grows out of ideologies and elaborate fantasies that congeal into revulsion and bottomless contempt for the persecuted group that result in their degradation.

    “As a nation, Myanmar is committing numerous crimes including systematic persecution and discrimination, crimes against humanity, ethnic cleansing and genocide” according to leading international experts, Rohingya refugees, and the UN Special Rapporteur for Myanmar at The London Conference on Decades of Persecution and Destruction Myanmar’s Rohingya (28 April 2014). Conference participants and global citizens, including me, endorsed a global call to end Rohingya genocide.

    Meanwhile in Burma, Rohingya continue to be crushed. The Census under Minister Khin Yi’s direction had no category Rohingya denying their very existence. Burma also forbade any mention of “the Rohingya issue” at the May ASEAN summit hosted in NayPyiTaw, as they demanded at the ASEAN Foreign Ministers’ January meeting.

    Despite government denial of Rohingya citizenship, or humanitarian aid, or freedom of movement, or of holding Rohingya prisoners of conscience, the UN Sec-Gen at the first Partnership Group on Myanmar meeting in New York (25 April 2014), welcomed a Myanmar delegation headed by Khin Yi, Minister of Immigration and Population, “to better reflect the positive developments on the ground”. The Sec-Gen reiterated continued full support to the Government of Myanmar, by the whole UN system.

    Decades of prolific documentation and government denial responses to UN and other credible reports mean that the former Burmese military regime, the current government, and the UN members are well aware of allegations of egregious human rights abuses against Rohingya.

    Nations continue to express their optimism about government reforms despite abundant evidence of state atrocities and continued systematic repression. Leo Kuper explains in the preface to Genocide: A Critical Bibliographical Review (1991), a technology of denial developed by member states of the United Nations, has frequently been used to shield various favoured rights-abusing governments.

    Witnesses to the long standing serious injustice, systematic policies and acts of oppression, including UN member states, are complicit in the unfolding genocide of Rohingya. It is time to act. There should be an end to impunity.

  2. #2
    Suffering in Rakhine 'the worst I've seen', says top UN official
    Thursday, 19 June 2014

    The United Nations assistant secretary-general for humanitarian affairs has said the suffering she witnessed last week in camps for internally displaced persons in Rakhine State was the worst she has seen.

    United Nations assistant secretary-general for humanitarian affairs Kyung-wha Kang (centre) in the Rakhine State capital, Sittwe, on June 11. The visit to Myanmar by Ms Kang, who is also the UN's deputy emergency relief coordinator, included trips to Kachin State and Nay Pyi Taw, where she meet senior government ministers.
    Photo: EPA/NYUNT WIN

    "I witnessed a level of human suffering in IDP camps that I have never personally seen before, with men, women and children living in appalling conditions with severe restrictions on their movement, both in camps and isolated villages," Ms Kyung-wha Kang told a news conference at the UN in New York on June 17.

    The news conference followed a four-day visit to Myanmar last week by Ms Kang, which also included a trip to Kachin State to visit an IDP camp there and meetings in Nay Pyi Taw with senior government ministers in Nay Pyi Taw.

    Ms Kang, who is also the UN's deputy emergency relief coordinator, said many residents of IDP camps in Rakhine had "wholly inadequate" access to basic services, including health, education, water and sanitation.

    "Two years into the crisis in Rakhine, hundreds of thousands of people continue to rely on humanitarian aid because they cannot rebuild their lives and livelihoods," she said.

    Ms Kang said the employees of humanitarian organisations in Rakhine were working under extremely difficult circumstances. "I was humbled by their commitment to stay and deliver," she said.

    "However, unless the Myanmar authorities ensure that the perpertrators of the attacks on UN and NGO premises [in the Rakhine capital, Sittwe] in late March are brought to justice, the safety and security of our staff will continue to be at risk."

    During her visit to Kachin State, Ms Kang visited an IDP camp in the state capital, Myitkyina, and met members of Myanmar non-government groups which she said were playing a key role in providing humanitarian aid to IDP camps in areas outside government control.

    "Access by international humanitarian organisations is improving through cross-line missions but aid agencies need regular, predictable and sustained access to all IDPs," Ms Kang said.

    "The priority for both the Government and the international community must be to improve the lives of the most vulnerable people in the country, regardless of ethnicity, nationality, religion, gender or class," she said.

  3. #3
    'No Rohingya in Myanmar,' anti-human trafficking meeting told
    08 August 2014

    Comments at Thai meet illustrate limbo Rohingya find themselves in as they seek to improve their livelihoods.


    Muslim Rohingya living in camps in western Myanmar are being forced into the hands of traffickers as Myanmar authorities continue to refuse their right to citizenship, which would open the floor to discussion on their future in bilateral cooperation programs on trafficking with neighboring Thailand.

    "There are no Rohingya in Myanmar, but we do have a minority group coming from a neighboring country," Myanmar General Win Naing Tun told media this week.

    The head of the anti-human trafficking division with the Myanmar police was speaking at a bilateral meeting on the island of Phuket, in southern Thailand, between Thai and Myanmar police forces to fight human trafficking.

    Most Rohingya have been living in Rakhine state, in western Myanmar, for generations, although a small group have recently migrated from neighboring country Bangladesh.

    The Myanmar government refuses to grant them citizenship, saying they are all illegal immigrants. Tension between Rohingya and local Buddhists, known as Arakanese, has always been high, but boiled over in 2012 when several large clashes provoked the death of around 200 people and left 140,000 homeless.

    Since then, Rohingya have be confined to grim camps in Rakhine state. Many of them pay large amounts of money to traffickers to flee the country on cramped boats in hopes of finding work in Thailand, Malaysia or Australia. Many of those who arrive in southern Thailand become prey to others human traffickers and corrupt local officials.

    When pushed further on the Rohingya issue by reporters, General Win Naing Tun insisted they were not of any concern to his government and warned that "it was a sensitive issue which could affect the relations between the two countries."

    His Thai counterpart, General Pansak Kasemsant - assistant-commissioner general of the Thai police - expressed awareness from the Thai side that the Rohingya issue could not be discussed at the forum despite recognition that there was a problem to be taken care of.

    "We are supposed to return the refugees to their home countries, but with Rohingya we cannot do that [because Myanmar refuses to recognize Myanmar as their home country], so we have to relocate them in displacement shelters," he told local newspaper Phuket Gazette.

    Thousands of Rohingya are kept in camps in southern Thailand, with the support of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees and the International Office of Migrations, waiting for a third country to accept them.

    In June, Thailand was downgraded to the lowest level in the U.S. State Department Trafficking in Persons report - alongside countries such as Syria and Gambia.

    Since then, the Thai junta - which seized power on May 22 - has been trying to regulate migrant workers through the establishment of 43 registration centers throughout the Kingdom, asking all "illegals" to return to their home countries and go through a "national verification process" before coming back to Thailand where they can be registered as "legal" migrant workers. Because figures such as General Win Naing Tun refuse to recognize Myanmar as their home country, Rohingya are left in limbo in Thai camps.

    A document issued by the Myanmar embassy in Thailand and obtained by the Anadolu Agency stipulates that migrant workers will have to show "Myanmar ID and household registration" to pass the verification process.

    Myanmar ID cards are refused to Rohingya living in Myanmar, leaving Rohingya at the mercy of human trafficking networks and corrupt local officials as they seek a way out of their camps.

  4. #4
    Rohingya Boatpeople Held in Pickups North of Phuket: Police Probe Human Trafficking Ring
    Chutima Sidasathian and Alan Morison
    Saturday, September 13, 2014

    A police patrol vessel among piers and mangroves near Kuraburi
    Photo by

    PHUKET: Police have arrested three Thais and apprehended 32 Rohingya boatpeople at a checkpoint north of Phuket with officers now investigating a human trafficking ring.

    The Superintendent of Kuaraburi Police Station, Colonel Veerasin Khwanseng, said today that all the people being held were in two pickups stopped about 11am yesterday at a checkpoint on the main road south from the Andaman coast fishing port.

    One of the pickups carried a Royal Thai Police Region One windscreen sticker, he said. Five more pickups, reported to also be heading for jungle camps in southern Thailand, eluded police.

    It is believed that the Rohingya who were apprehended yesterday came off two boats that are thought to have landed on the coast of Thailand several days ago.

    The maze of mangrove-enclosed islands along the coast off Ranong and Phang Nga provinces makes hiding a large number of people without detection relatively easy.

    The two pickups - one carrying Phuket numberplates - were pulled over as they headed south towards the holiday island.

    Held on suspicion of trafficking in the first vehicle were Kanong Oakdee, 49, and Jerapa Paramee, 32. Driving the second vehicle, which bore a police windscreen sticker, was Panmani Nunin, 39.

    It is believed their destination was further south in Songhla or Satun provinces, where human traffickers are known to maintain holding camps in plantations and jungle for Rohingya and Bangladeshi boatpeople.

    Traffickers usually demand 60,000 baht to smuggle each person into Malaysia and beat those who fail to succeed in imploring relatives or friends to pay the ransom.

    The first pickup pulled over yesterday contained a man and a woman in the cabin with eight Rohingya, and five more boatpeople in the pickup tray. In the second vehicle were a driver and 19 Rohingya.

    The Rohingya are being held at Kuraburi Police Station and will probably be handed over to Immigration authorities today. Questioning of the Thai suspects will go on.

    According to sources, the flow of Rohingya escaping violence and state-sanctioned ethnic cleansing in Burma's Rakhine state continues and is likely to increase as the monsoons end and the safer ''sailing season'' commences in October.

    It's considered improbable that large numbers of boatpeople could be travelling by sea then through southern Thailand without the knowledge or active assistance of outlaws in uniform.

    On December 26 last year, Phuketwan journalists interviewed Rohingya and Bangladeshis among a boatload of men, women and children apprehended near Kuraburi the previous day. Some of the men bore scars from recent beatings.

    The boatpeople claimed they were handed over to human traffickers by the Burmese Navy. The traffickers killed 12 people and abused others, the survivors said.

    Declaration of Interest: In July next year, Phuketwan journalists Alan Morison and Chutima Sidasathian face trial over criminal defamation and Computer Crimes Act charges brought by the Royal Thai Navy, citing a 41-word paragraph from a Pulitzer prize-winning Reuters report on the Rohingya boatpeople. Reuters and other news organisations in Thailand that published the same paragraph have not been charged. The charges were laid before the military takeover in Thailand.

  5. #5
    Myanmar plans 'indefinite detention' for some Rohingya: HRW
    3 Oct 2014

    YANGON - Myanmar's plans to force stateless Rohingya to be identified as "Bengali" -- a term seen as disparaging -- for citizenship will leave those who refuse facing "indefinite detention" or deportation, Human Rights Watch has warned.

    Tears roll down the face of an ethnic Myanmar Rohingya refugee during a demonstration outside the United Nations (UN) offices in Kuala Lumpur on July 16, 2014

    The Rakhine Action Plan was touted by Myanmar's foreign minister as a major part of efforts to bring "harmony" to the conflict-torn western state in comments to the United Nations this week.

    But a draft document, seen by AFP, would see the state's around one million Muslim Rohingya forced to take on the label Bengali -- which many see as referring to the widely-held view that they are illegal immigrants from neighbouring Bangladesh.

    Those who refuse to comply and those without the requisite documentation to complete the citizenship process would be held in "temporary camps in required numbers", according to the document.

    The government would then attempt to "resettle the illegal aliens elsewhere", it said.

    HRW said this would amount to "arbitrary, indefinite detention with the possibility of deportation".

    Rakhine remains deeply scarred by two bouts of bloodshed in 2012 that left over 200 dead and some 140,000 homeless and trapped in miserable displacement camps.

    Deputy Asia director for HRW Phil Robertson said the Rakhine plans, which also outline resettlement of those in camps, were "nothing less than a blueprint for permanent segregation and statelessness that appears designed to strip the Rohingya of hope and force them to flee the country".

    Stateless Rohingya are viewed by the UN as one of the world's most persecuted peoples, with years of restrictions in Myanmar and Bangladesh, including curbs on movement and marriage.

    Myanmar's draft plan echoes controversial comments made by the country's quasi-civilian leader Thein Sein soon after the first wave of violence in June 2012, when he suggested refugee camps or deportation as a "solution" for the Rohingya.

    The new plan says all "Bengalis" should be assessed for their eligibility to become citizens between January 2015 and October 2016.

    Many people are thought to have lost official paperwork as they fled their homes as bloodshed and arson swept the state two years ago.

    Earlier this year Rakhine Muslims were largely missed out of a controversial census -- the first in three decades -- because of fears that allowing the group to self-identify as Rohingya would further inflame tensions with local Buddhists.

    Buddhist nationalists, accusing the international community of bias towards Muslims, attacked humanitarian offices just days before the census began, forcing aid workers to flee Rakhine.

    While many aid groups have returned, conditions in the camps remain dire, particularly for healthcare.

  6. #6
    Ah, the two peace-loving Buddhist nations of Burma and Thailand . . . lovely

  7. #7
    Arrested Rohingya North of Phuket Guarded by Volunteers in Thailand Human Trafficking Bust
    Chutima Sidasathian and Alan Morison
    Saturday, October 11, 2014

    PHUKET: A large group of trafficked boatpeople is being held by local authorities north of Phuket to protect them from local police and ensure their rights are upheld.

    According to one of the boatpeople who spoke in English by telephone to Phuketwan, the group of 53 had been among 310 men, women and children ''kidnapped'' by Thai brokers.

    At least 100 more Rohingya and Bangladeshis are still hidden on an island off the holiday coast of Thailand's Andaman region, north of Phuket, he said.

    Local officials have taken the apprehended boatpeople into custody and called in human rights lawyers because of concerns that the police will not recognise the boatpeople as asylum seekers and treat them instead as illegal migrants.

    The case is likely to bring to the attention of Thailand's government the continuing human trafficking off Thailand's coast as increasing numbers of Rohingya flee persecution in Burma, also known as Myanmar, where they are stateless and being subjected to ethnic cleansing.

    The group of 53 men was arrested today at 4am by the Director of the Takuapa district, Manit Paktean, and a team of volunteers. The men were waiting in bushes alongside the main road through the large coast township of Takuapa. Two men alleged to be traffickers fled when the authorities swooped.

    Others from the same trafficking boat had already been trucked south towards the border with Malaysia, the asylum seeker, aged 22, told Phuketwan.

    ''I fled from Cox's Bazaar (in Bangladesh) and there were 310 people on the boat,'' he said. ''We quickly realised we had been kidnapped and were going to be sold on. I was beaten on the boat and in the camp as well.''

    Many uninhabited islands dot the coast of the province of Phang Nga, north of Phuket, allowing human trafficking to flourish over the past few years as increasing numbers of Rohingya have fled. Locals and outlaw men in uniform are believed to have turned to trading in people as a highly profitable source of income.

    The asylum seeker told Phuketwan he had become desperate after a lifetime as an unwanted refugee in a Rohingya camp in Bangladesh. He left behind a one-year-old child, his wife and his mother.

    In a post on the man's Facebook page, he wrote: ''I ask you, Government of Burma says, 'This is not your land.'

    ''Government of Bangladesh says 'This is not your land. So I ask UNHCR [the UN refugee body] I ask Burma and Bangladesh, to please tell me, 'Where do I belong? Where is my house? Where can I go?

    ''I do not want to be a refugee any more. I just want to live in peace.''

    A campaign to drive Rohingya from their land in Burma's Rakhine state began with the torching of villages by their Buddhist neighbors in mid-2012. An increasing stream of men, women and children have been trafficked by sea and through secret jungle camps in southern Thailand since then.

    It's still a mystery as to how traffickers trading in so many thousands of people manage to evade all the authorities in Thailand. The country was relegated to Tier 3, the lowest level, in the US State Department's annual Trafficking in Persons report this year.

    Concern continues to mount among human rights groups as Burma pursues an inhumane policy that fails to mask its campaign to obliterate all Rohingya.

    In the latest development, increasing numbers of men from Burma's Rohingya Muslim minority are being arrested and tortured because of alleged ties to a militant Islamic organisation, according to a rights group.

    The Rohingya have previously been accused of travelling south to join the violent insurgency movement in southern Thailand. Thai officials investigated and found that the boatpeople were genuine asylum seekers who were only interested in finding sanctuary in Malaysia.

  8. #8
    Myanmar Rohingya ‘tortured over alleged terror ties'

    At least 58 members of Muslim minority arrested for alleged links to Rohingya Solidarity Organization, human rights group says.

    Dozens of men from Myanmar’s persecuted Rohingya Muslim minority have been arrested and tortured because of alleged ties to a militant organization, according to a rights group.

    The Arakan Project, a Thailand-based group that documents abuses against the Rohingya, says one man has been tortured to death in Myanmar’s far north-west, near the border with Bangladesh.

    Authorities have rounded up at least 58 men in the last two weeks from several villages in the north of Rakhine state, according to figures compiled by the Arakan Project and seen by the Anadolu Agency.

    The wife of the dead man told the group she was forced to sign a statement that her husband died of natural causes.

    The recently arrested Rohingya men were accused of having ties to a group called the Rohingya Solidarity Organization, or RSO.

    Despite little being known about the organization’s movements today, sporadic attacks on Myanmar’s border with Bangladesh are often blamed on the RSO.

    Chris Lewa, the Arakan Project’s founder, told the AA Friday the arrests were “arbitrary” and “clearly a reaction to the al-Qaeda announcement earlier in September.”

    She added that the men were picked up at checkpoints or from their villages by members of the Border Guard Police, an organization that Rohingya regularly accuse of human rights abuses.

    The RSO is believed to have been formed in the 1990s after the Myanmar army forced hundreds of thousands of Rohingya accused of being in the country illegally to flee to Bangladesh.

    Earlier this year Khin Maung Myint , head of foreign relations for the pro-Rohingya National Democratic Party for Development, claimed "the RSO hadn’t existed for 20 years.”

    He said stories about RSO movements in the region had led to conspiracy theories and questioned whether the existence of the group was a government smokescreen.

    Last year, photos circulated on extremist Buddhist websites purporting to show armed insurgents inside Myanmar preparing to avenge attacks against Rohingya.

    The Rohingya have been persecuted in Myanmar for decades but their plight has gained widespread international attention since the former military-ruled country began democratic reforms in 2011.

    While hundreds of political prisoners have been freed, censorship has been relaxed and economic reforms brought in, the Rohingyas' suffering has intensified.

    In 2012, extremist mobs of Buddhists attacked Rohingya villages in Rakhine's state capital Sittwe. The initial riots killed up to 140 and forced tens of thousands of Rohingyas into squalid camps.

    The violence has since spread amidst a wave of hate speech targeting all of Myanmar’s Muslims, led by extremist monks bolstered by the country’s newfound freedoms of expression.

    Presidential spokesman Ye Htut has described accusations of Rohingya persecution as "baseless."

  9. #9
    Quote Originally Posted by Mid View Post
    The violence has since spread amidst a wave of hate speech targeting all of Myanmar’s Muslims, led by extremist monks bolstered by the country’s newfound freedoms of expression.

    Presidential spokesman Ye Htut has described accusations of Rohingya persecution as "baseless."
    Bunch of wankers . . . I thought only Muslim clerics could be 'extremists'. Obviously not, but this is a fact that will seriously disturb the local bigots

  10. #10
    Thailand arrests 53 Rohingya migrants en route to Malaysia
    Oct 11, 2014

    BANGKOK(AFP) - Thai authorities on Saturday arrested 53 Rohingya migrants and two suspected Thai traffickers en route to neighbouring Malaysia, an official said.

    The migrants were found on a rubber plantation in Takua Pa district in the southern coastal province of Phang Nga, district chief Manit Phianthong told AFP.

    "We got a tip-off from an informant that a trafficking gang would be transporting Rohingya people to Malaysia," he said, adding that the migrants came from Myanmar's western Rakhine state and Bangladesh.

    Thousands of Rohingya - a Muslim minority group not recognised as citizens in Myanmar - have fled deadly communal unrest in Rakhine since 2012, mostly heading for Malaysia.

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